Model: -16C General: Name: The Computer Scientist Code-Name: PR Family: Voyager, Series 10 Logic: RPN Features: programmable Firsts: programmer's (base arithmetic, variable length word size) Introduction: Date: 1982-7-1 Price: $150 Discontinuation: Date: 1989-01-01 Price: $120 (on 1983-02-01) Production-Run: ? Display: Type: LCD, 7 segment Size: 1 line x 10 chars Number-Formats: sign, 8 binary digits, "b" sign, 8 octal digits, "o" sign, 8 decimal digits, "d" sign, 8 hexadecimal digits, "h" sign, 10 mantissa sign, 7 mantissa, ., exp sign, 2 exp Annunciators: * battery low f f-shift g g-shift G overflow C carry PRGM program mode Data: User-Visible: Smallest: 1E-99 Largest: 9.999999999E99 Signif.-Digits: 10 Internal: Smallest: 1E-99 Largest: 9.999999999E99 Signif.-Digits: 10 Data-Types-and-Sizes: real, 7 bytes binary (1-64 bits), 1-16 nybbles Memory: Named-Registers: X, Y, Z, T, Last x, I (68 bits) 0-F, .0-.F Flags: 0-2, user, shown with MEM 3, leading zero display, shown with MEM 4, carry, C annunciator 5, out-of-range, G annunciator Register-Usage: none Numbered-Registers: 406 -> 0, depending on word size Program-Steps: 7 -> 203 Program-Editing: Insert Program-Display: keycode User-RAM-Bytes: 203 Total-RAM-Bytes: 512 ROM-Bytes: 12K Machine-State: prefix key state stack lift enable display mode program counter three level return stack radix mark PRGM mode program / register memory divider hex / dec / oct / bin / float word size 2's, 1'2, unsigned complement display window flags registers memory File-Types: none Physical: Technology-Used: CMOSC Processor: 1LE2 SACAJAWEA Chip-Count: 3 chips: 1LE2 (uControler containing display driver, memory manager & Saturn CPU), 1LF5 & 1LK1 (RAM/ROM) Power-Source: 3 alkaline (Eveready A76) or silver-oxide (Eveready 357) button cells Continuous-Memory: yes Expansion-Ports: none I/O-Ports: none Clock: none Length: ? Width: ? Height: ? Weight: ? Temperature-Range: Operating: 0 to 55 deg C Charging: none Storage: -40 to 65 deg C Keyboard: Switches: none Shift-Keys: f, yellow, above g, blue, below User-Defined-Keys: none Key-Arrangement:: ** ** ** ** ** ** *** *** *** *** ** ** ** ** ** ** *** *** *** *** ** ** ** ** ** ** *** *** *** *** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *** *** *** *** Key-Labels-Base-Keyboard:: A B C D E F 7 8 9 \:- GSB GTO HEX DEC OCT BIN 4 5 6 x R/S SST Rv x<>y BSP ENTER 1 2 3 - ON f g STO RCL ENTER 0 . CHS + Key-Labels-f-gold-above:: SL SR RL RR RLn RRn MASKL MASKR RMD XOR |--------- SHOW ---------| x<>(i) x<>I     SB CB B? AND |------ CLEAR -------| |---- SET COMPL ----| (i) I PRGM REG PREFIX WINDOW 1'S 2'S UNSGN NOT    WSIZE FLOAT WINDOW MEM STATUS EEX OR Key-Labels-g-blue-below:: LJ ASR RLC RRC RLCn RRCn #B ABS DBLR DBL\:- RTN LBL DSZ ISZ \v/x 1/x SF CF F? DBLx P/R BST R^ PSE CLx LSTx x\<=y x<0 x>y x>0    < > LSTx x\=/y x\=/0 x=y x=0 Programmable-Operations:: #B compute the number of 1 bits + addition - subtraction 0-9, ., A-F enter digit or decimal point 1's set one's complement mode 1/x reciprocal 2's set two's complement mode < shift number left one digit in display > shift number right one digit in dislplay ABS absolute value AND bitwise and ASR arithmetic shift right 1 bit B? is the specified bit set? BIN set binary mode CB clear bit CF 0-5 clear flag CHS change sign CLEAR REG clear all registers CLx clear X DBLR double precision remainder DBLx double precision multiply DBL\:- double precision division DEC set decimal mode DSZ decrement and skip on zero, counter in I, end is 0, increment is 1 EEX start an exponent ENTER enter F? 0-5 test flag FLOAT . scientific mode with 6 decimal places FLOAT 0-9 fixed decimal mode GSB 0-9,A-F,I subroutine call a label GTO 0-9,A-F,I go to label HEX set hexadecimal mode ISZ increment and skip on zero, counter in I, end is 0, increment is 1 LBL 0-9,A-F label LJ left justify LSTx LAST X MASKL generate 1s mask from left MASKR generate 1s mask from right NOT bitwise not OCT set octal mode OR bitwise or PSE pause R/S start/stop a program RCL 0-F,.0-.F,I,(i) recall from register RL rotate left 1 bit RLC rotate left through carry 1 bit RLCn rotate left through carry n bits RLn rotate left n bits RMD remainder RR rotate right 1 bit RRC rotate right through carry 1 bit RRCn rotate right through carry n bits RRn rotate right n bits RTN return Rv roll the stack down R^ roll stack up SB set bit SF 0-5 set flag SHOW BIN show the number in binary SHOW DEC show the number in decimal SHOW HEX show the number in hexadecimal SHOW OCT show the number in octal SL shift left 1 bit SR shift right 1 bit STO 0-F,.0-.F,I,(i) store in register UNSGN set unsigned mode WINDOW 0-7 set display window WSIZE set word size x multiplication x<0 conditional test x<>(i) exchange x<>I exchange x<>y exchange x and y x=0 conditional test x=y conditional test x>0 conditional test x>y conditional test XOR bitwise exclusive or x\<=y conditional test x\=/0 conditional test x\=/y conditional test \:- division \v/x square root Non-Programmable-Operations:: BSP erase last digit/program step BST back step CLEAR PREFIX clear any prefix, shows all digits CLEAR PRGM (program mode) clear all program steps (run mode) set program counter to 0 f f-shift g g-shift GTO .0-.203 go to program line MEM display memory status ON on/off ON + + inititate continuous self-test ON + - clear continuous memory ON + . toggle ,/. digit separator ON + D reset calculator ON + x initiate one self-test ON + \:- initiate keyboard test P/R program/run mode SST single step STATUS show machine status NOTE: The notation "KEY + KEY" means that both keys are pressed at the same time. Menus:: none Bugs/ROM-Versions:: The GSB (i) and GTO (i) functions apparently exist, but are not documented in the manual. Notes:: A lone, shining star. You can retrive the WSIZE with the sequence: 0 (or CLx if you want to overwrite x) NOT #B ------------------------------------------------------------ From: David Davies <email@example.com> Newsgroups: comp.sys.hp48 Subject: Re: 16C 68 bit index reg: what for? Date: 20 Mar 2003 13:47:29 +0100 Message-ID: <firstname.lastname@example.org> Alexander Supalov <email@example.com> writes: > Do you suggest that those 4 bits would hold a multiplier to be applied > to the "normal" value of the address register? The manual is > surprisingly ambiguous as far as the formatting of the index register is > concerned, so that this might be possible. My guess is that it is not a multiplier but an additional four bits of space to compute physical nybble addresses (when the word size is greater than four bits) without throwing away the most significant bits of the 64-bit integer. To quote the manual: "A number stored in RI will be represented in a 68-bit format, numerically equivalent to the number in the X-register." (Section 6, p.68) But the HP-16C index register hides even more puzzles:- If you examine the behaviour of the index register with different word size settings, using ISZ to find out where it rolls over to zero. This invariably happens at 2^64, not 2^68. Perhaps more interesting is to try this out in different complement modes. You will find that ISZ never skips in unsigned mode, skips at FFF...FFFF in one's complement mode and at 000...0000 in two's complement mode. I guess this is correct behaviour. Now see what happens if you change the complement mode after loading the index register. If you experiment with a little program like: LBL A ISZ GTO A R/S setting up the complement mode, loading a suitable value into RI (FFF...FFFE or less), changing the complement mode and seeing where the routine stops, you will notice even stranger behaviour:- * If you load RI in unsigned mode or two's complement mode and then change mode before running the little routine above, the machine will honour the mode that was in force _when_the_register_was_loaded_. * If you try the same trick loading the register in one's complement mode and then switching to unsigned mode, the machine will execute the ISZ instruction as though it was in two's complement mode. ... This is probably a bug... dd.
I am Craig A. Finseth.
Last modified Saturday, 2012-02-25T17:29:22-06:00.